All posts by legerprime

My name is Ryan Leger. I'm from Bolton. My interest is film. Always has been. The purpose of my blog is to post scripts and film reviews.

Non-narrative

Narrative refers to telling a story. So non-narrative writing would be something that doesn’t involve a story – it could be something like a voter’s list, an invoice, a non-fictional account of some event. Non-narritive writing is never done in the first person – it’s always very formal and usually very impersonal. In fact, most of it doesn’t involve people as such, but rather deals with statistical information.

Non-narrative storytelling, sometimes used in literature, film, hypertext websites and other narratives, where events are portrayed, for example out of chronological order, or in other ways, is where the narrative does not follow the direct causality pattern of the events featured, such as parallel distinctive plot lines, dream immersions or narrating another story inside the main plot-line. It is often used to mimic the structure and recall of human memory, but has been applied for other reasons as well.

Defining nonlinear structure in film is, at times, difficult. Films may use extensive flashbacks or flashforwards within a linear storyline, while nonlinear films often contain linear sequences. Orson Welles’ Citizen Kane (1941) — influenced structurally by The Power and the Glory (1933) — and Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon (1950) use a non-chronological flashback narrative that is often labeled nonlinear.

Some types of non-narrative writing If/Then moment stories and poems. When writing screenplays, I find it the most difficult trying to write non-narrative type of style. I find it much easier to write in a narrative, because then I get to unravel the story in way that’s not that hard to follow.

Dialogic

Dialogic is the continual dialogue with other words.

The English terms dialogic and dialogism often refer to the concept used by the Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin in his work of literary theory, The Dialogic Imagination. Bakhtin contrasts the dialogic and the “monologic” work of literature.

This is not merely a matter of influence, for the dialogue extends in both directions, and the previous work of literature is as altered by the dialogue as the present one is. Though Bakhtin’s “dialogic” emanates from his work with colleagues in what we now call the “Bakhtin Circle” in years following 1918, his work was not known to the West or translated into English until the 1970s. For those only recently introduced to Bakhtin’s ideas but familiar with T.S.Eliot, his “dialogic” is consonant with Eliot’s ideas in “Tradition and the Individual Talent,” where Eliot holds that “the past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past”.[1] For Bakhtin, the influence can also occur at the level of the individual word or phrase as much as it does the work and even the oeuvre or collection of works. A German cannot use the word “fatherland” or the phrase “blood and soil” without (possibly unintentionally) also echoing (or, Bakhtin would say “refracting”) the meaning that those terms took on under Nazism. Every word has a history of usage to which it responds, and anticipates a future response.

When it comes to films/TV, dialogue’s the #1 thing I love listening to.

Plot

Plot is a narrative (and, traditionally, literary) term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly: as they relate to one another in a pattern or in a sequence; as they relate to each other through cause and effect; how the reader views the story; or simply by coincidence.

A plot was defined in 1927 by the English novelist E. M. Forster. Forster defined a plot as the cause‐and‐effect relationship between events in a story.

It was under these circumstances that, a plot is used to design a story. In screenwriting, the treatment contains the plot, and provides the fundamentals for the screenplay. It is a prose, but has not yet divided into scenes (as contrasted with the outline makes a few line summary of each scene). In addition, more than a few writers employ dozens of index cards.

Generally, screenwriters combine plot with plot structure into treatment, then, this structure is referred to as the Three act structure. This structure divided the length of a film into three parts, namely, three acts. Their acts have each function of Set-up, Confrontation, and Resolution. Each act is connected by two Plot points (i.e., turning points), which Plot point I is Act I border with Act II, then, Plot point II is also similar. Syd Field, United States screenwriter, redefined the three act structure in that way, for a film analysis in 1979.

As a screenwriter, I always focus on plot before characters and dialogue. It’s the most important piece.

Conflict

Conflict in literature refers to the different drives of the characters or forces involved. Conflict may be internal or external—that is, it may occur within a character’s mind or between a character and exterior forces. Conflict is most visible between two or more characters, usually a protagonist and an antagonist/enemy/villain, but can occur in many different forms. A character may as easily find himself or herself in conflict with a natural force, such as an animal or a weather event, like a hurricane. The literary purpose of conflict is to create tension in the story, making readers more interested by leaving them uncertain which of the characters or forces will prevail.

There may be multiple points of conflict in a single story, as characters may have more than one desire or may struggle against more than one opposing force.[3] When a conflict is resolved and the reader discovers which force or character succeeds, it creates a sense of closure. Conflicts may resolve at any point in a story, particularly where more than one conflict exists, but stories do not always resolve every conflict. If a story ends without resolving the main or major conflict(s), it is said to have an “open” ending. Open endings, which can serve to ask the reader to consider the conflict more personally, may not satisfy them, but obvious conflict resolution may also leave readers disappointed in the story.

Without conflict, the story would have little meaning. The protagonist would dry and the antagonist also.

UGC

User-generated content (UGC) is “any form of content like blogs, wikis, discussion forums, posts, chats, tweets, podcasting, pins, digital images, video, audio files, and other forms of media that was created by users of an online system or service, often made available via social media websites”. It entered mainstream usage during 2005, having arisen in web publishing and new media content production circles. It is used for a wide range of applications, including problem processing, news, gossip and research and reflects the expansion of media production through new technologies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Additionally, user-generated content may also employ a combination of open source, free software, and flexible licensing or related agreements to further reduce the barriers to collaboration, skill-building and discovery (“‘UGC'”) has also gained in popularity over the last decade, as many more users have begun to flock to social media and “‘content-based'” sharing sites.

In the wake of the 7 July 2005 London bombings and the Buncefield oil depot fire, the team was made permanent and was expanded, reflecting the arrival in the mainstream of the citizen journalist. After the Buncefield disaster the BBC received over 5,000 photos from viewers.

User-generated content was featured in Time magazine’s 2006 Person of the Year, in which the person of the year was “you”, meaning all of the people who contribute to user generated media such as YouTube and Wikipedia. The precursor to user-generated content uploaded on YouTube was America’s Funniest Home Videos.

I find YouTube videos easier than blogs.

Digital Story

If/then interactive stories are different and unique then those that are commonly written in the normal fashion. Users can create/influence a dramatic storyline through actions, either by issuing commands to the protagonist, or acting as a general director of events in the narrative. The narrative, and its evolution, can be influenced in real-time by a user. This is different because the viewer can choose what path they want rather than watching the suspense of the protagonist making the wrong choice, or the relief of him making the right one.

These’s a weird relationship between interactive storytelling and computer games. Much research in the community focuses on applications to computer games. There are several key issues in interactive storytelling. Number one’s how to generate stories which are both interesting and coherent; and number two’s how to allow the user to intervene in the story, without violating any rules of the genre.

Environmental approaches are those which take an interactive system, such as a computer game, and encourage the actions of a user in such a way as to form a coherent plot. Emergent behaviour forms story-like behavior regardless of the users actions.

Data-driven strategies have a library of “story components” so general that they can be combined smoothly in response to a user’s actions (or lack thereof).

Language-based approaches require that the user and system share some, very limited, domain-specific language so that they can react to each other and the system can ‘understand’ a greater proportion of the users actions.

Freytag’s Pyramid

On the second week of class, I have learned about the Dramatic structure. Also known as Freytag’s Pyramid. Freytag’s Pyramid is the structure of a dramatic work such as a play or film. The pyramid has five parts, or acts, which some refer to as a dramatic arc: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and dénouement.

The exposition is the part of a story that introduces important background information to the audience, such as information about the setting, events occurring before the main plot, and characters’ back stories.

The rising action of a story is the series of events that begin immediately after the exposition (introduction) of the story and builds up to the climax. These events are generally the most important parts of the story since the entire plot depends on them to set up the climax, and ultimately the satisfactory resolution of the story itself.

The climax is the turning point, which changes the protagonist’s fate. If the story is a comedy, things will have gone badly for the protagonist up to this point. If the story is a tragedy, the opposite state of affairs will ensue.

During the falling action, the conflict between the protagonist and the antagonist unravels, the protagonist either wins or loses against the antagonist. The falling action may contain a moment of final suspense, in which the final outcome of the conflict is in doubt.

Catastrophe comprises events from the end of the falling action to the actual ending scene of the drama/narrative.